The main physiological and hormonal changes in a woman’s life take place during pregnancy – and the mouth is one of the main areas where such changes occur. Elevated hormone levels (oestrogen and progesterone) significantly increase vascular permeability in the gingival tissues and, in the presence of dental plaque, promote gingival inflammation. In the presence of oral biofilms, these physiological changes will aggravate gingival inflammation and, in cases of people who already have periodontitis, the clinical parameters will worsen. Both a specific localised lesion (pregnancy tumour) and a more generalised one (pregnancy gingivitis) are associated with pregnancy, although women usually revert to health after delivery.
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